Then Adam Smith challenged this dominant thought in The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776.  Smith argued that if one nation is more efficient than another country in manufacturing a product, while the other nation is more efficient in manufacturing another product, then both nations could benefit from trade. This would allow each nation to specialize in the manufacture of the product, for which it had an absolute advantage, and thus increase total production over what it would be trade-free. This insight involved very different strategies from mercantilism. This is a reduction in government participation in the economy and a reduction in trade barriers. Free trade advocates argue that introducing import barriers, even if other countries do, is tantamount to shooting a gun in the foot. The opportunity to place the other foot on the trade barriers of other countries is based on an economic argument understandable by adam Smith in the 18th century: consumption being the only end of production, the interests of consumers are placed before the interests of producers, especially relatively inefficient producers. This strategy leads to its logical conclusion and recommends that the U.S. government not take steps to compensate for de facto subsidies to domestic consumers when imports are sold below fair value.  The effect of trade on GDP is therefore the net amount that exports leave above or below imports.
However, this is a static measure. As has already been said, expanded exports also have a dynamic effect, as firms become more efficient with rising sales. At the time of Smith, Ricardo and Hecksher-Ohlin, businesses were generally small and most international trade was made in agricultural or mineral products or in small production. However, until 1947, the large industry had evolved and much of the trade was manufactured. Not only does international trade improve efficiency, but it also allows countries to participate in a global economy, which promotes the possibility of foreign direct investment (FDI). In theory, economies can therefore grow more efficiently and become more easily competitive economic players. By 2020, world trade is expected to decline due to the COVID 19 pandemic, which is disrupting economic activity worldwide. These disruptions will have a profound impact on weaker economies, including developing countries and LDCs (UNCTAD, 2020c). For the above reasons, 2010 was selected as the appropriate reference year for the scenario described in this chapter.
Data for additional years are also available. Map 1 shows the share of developing countries in world exports of trade goods and services exports by country. Tourism is a labour-intensive sector that could make a large part of the population, including women and other groups under-represented, under-employment-intensive. It is also a sector with a high concentration of small and medium-sized enterprises, independent and family-owned enterprises. For these segments, tourism-related economic activity could provide women and local communities in developing countries with sustainable and sustainable ways to fight poverty (UNWTO and ILO, 2014). The economies of developing and developed countries are closely linked. In 2018, exports from developing countries to developed countries (which are most likely to be affected by COVID-19) accounted for more than 43% of total merchandise trade in developing countries, while intra-commerce exports accounted for almost 55%. Imports from developed economies to developing countries account for more than 30%. Trade in goods and services accounted for an average of about 45% of GDP in small island developing states, compared to an average of 30% (UNCTAD, 2020a).