Agreement On Intellectual Property

In particular, TRIPS obliges WTO Members to grant copyrights including authors and other copyright holders as well as holders of related rights, namely performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasters; geographical indications; industrial designs; Layout designs for integrated circuits; patents; new plant varieties; trademarks; trade names and undisclosed or confidential information. TRIPS also lays down enforcement procedures, remedies and dispute settlement procedures. The protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights must be consistent with the objectives of contributing to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, for the mutual benefit of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner that promotes social and economic well-being and a balance between rights and obligations. TRIPS conditions that impose more standards beyond TRIPS were also discussed. [38] These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to create competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for encouraging protection far beyond the standards imposed by TRIPS.